There are some things that it’s more comfortable not thinking about, and one of them is war. For many of us, direct, physical violence is a long way from us, and that’s something for which we can be very thankful. As the threat of physical violence recedes, however, it’s clear that the spectre of cyberattacks as part of a response to aggression – physical or virtual – is becoming more and more likely.
It’s well attested that many countries have “cyber-response capabilities”, and those will include aggressive as well as protective measures. And some nation states have made it clear not only that they consider cyberwarfare part of any conflict, but that they would be entirely comfortable with initiating cyberwarfare with attacks.
What, you should probably be asking, has that to do with us? And by “us”, I mean the open source software community. I think that the answer, I’m afraid, is “a great deal”. I should make it clear that I’m not speaking from a place of privileged knowledge here, but rather from thoughtful and fairly informed opinion. But it occurs to me that the “old style” of cyberattacks, against standard “critical infrastructure” like military installations, power plants and the telephone service, was clearly obsolete when the Two Towers collapsed (if not in 1992, when the film Sneakers hypothesised attacks against targets like civil aviation). Which means that any type of infrastructure or economic system is a target, and I think that open source is up there. Let me explore two ways in which open source may be a target.
If we had been able to pretend that open source wasn’t a core part of the infrastructure of nations all over the globe, that self-delusion was finally wiped away by the log4j vulnerabilities and attacks. Open source is everywhere now, and whether or not your applications are running any open source, the chances are that you deploy applications to public clouds running open source, at least some of your employees use an open source operating system on their phones, and that the servers running your chat channels, email providers, Internet providers and beyond make use – extensive use – of open source software: think apache, think bind, think kubernetes. At one level, this is great, because it means that it’s possible for bugs to be found and fixed before they can be turned into vulnerabilities, but that’s only true if enough attention is being paid to the code in the first place. We know that attackers will have been stockpiling exploits, and many of them will be against proprietary software, but given the amount of open source deployed out there, they’d be foolish not to be collecting exploits against that as well.
I hate to say it, but there also are what I’d call “passive targets”, those which aren’t necessarily first tier targets, but whose operation is important to the safe, continued working of our societies and economies, and which are intimately related to open source and open source communities. Two of the more obvious ones are GitHub and GitLab, which hold huge amounts of our core commonwealth, but long-term attacks on foundations such as the Apache Foundation and the Linux Foundation, let alone kernel.org, could also have impact on how we, as a community, work. Things are maybe slightly better in terms of infrastructure like chat services (as there’s a choice of more than one, and it’s easier to host your own instance), but there aren’t that many public servers, and a major attack on either them or the underlying cloud services on which many of them rely could be crippling.
Of course, the impact on your community, business or organisation will depend on your usage of difference pieces of infrastructure, how reliant you are on them for your day-to-day operation, and what mitigations you have available to you. Let’s quickly touch on that.
What can I do?
The Internet was famously designed to route around issues – attacks, in fact – and that helps. But, particularly where there’s a pretty homogeneous software stack, attacks on infrastructure could still have very major impact. Start thinking now:
- how would I support my customers if my main chat server went down?
- could I continue to develop if my main git provider became unavailable?
- would we be able to offer at least reduced services if a cloud provider lost connectivity for more than an hour or two?
By doing an analysis of what your business dependencies are, you have the opportunity to plan for at least some of the contingencies (although, as I note in my book, Trust in Computer Systems and the Cloud, the chances of your being able to analyse the entire stack, or discover all of the dependencies, is lower than you might think).
What else can you do? Patch and upgrade – make sure that whatever you’re running is the highest (supported!) version. Make back-ups of anything which is business critical. This should include not just your code but issues and bug-tracking, documentation and sales information. Finally, consider having backup services available for time-critical services like a customer support chat line.
Cyberattacks may not happen to your business or organisation directly, but if they happen to the open source community, the impact may be greater than you expect. Analyse. Plan. Mitigate.