Talking in school

Learning by teaching

A few months ago, I was asked by a teacher at a local school to come in and talk to year 10 and year 11 students (aged 14-16 or so) about my job, what I do, my background, how I got into my job and to give any further thoughts and advice.  Today I got the chance to go in and talk to them.

I very much enjoyed myself[1], and hopefully it was interesting for the pupils as well.  I went over my past – from being “a bit of a geek at school” through to some of the stuff I need to know to do my job now – and also talked about different types of work within IT security.  I was at pains to point out that you don’t need to be a great mathematician or even a great coder to get a career in IT security, and talked a lot about the importance of systems – which absolutely includes people.

What went down best – as is the case with pretty much any crowd – was stories.  “War stories”, as they’re sometimes called, about what situations you’ve come across, how you dealt with them, how other people reacted, and the lessons you’ve learned from them, give an immediacy and relevance that just can’t be beaten.  I was careful not to make them very technical – and one about a member of staff who had lost weight while on holiday and got stuck in a two-door man-trap (which included a weight sensor) went down particularly well[3].

The other thing that was useful – and which isn’t always going to work in a C-level meeting, for instance – was some exercises. Codes and ciphers are always interesting, so I started with a ROT13, then a Caesar cipher, then a simple key, then a basic alphabet substitution.  We talked about letter frequency, repeated words, context and letter groupings, and the older group solved all of the puzzles, which was excellent.

There was time for some questions, too, which included:

  • “how much do you get paid?”  Somewhat cheeky, this one, but I answered by giving them a salary range for a job which someone had contacted me about, but which I’d not followed up on – and gave no indications of the reasons for rejecting it
  • “do you need an IT or computing degree?”  No, though it can be helpful.
  • “do you need a degree at all?”  No, and though it can be difficult to get on without one, there are some very good apprentice schemes out there.

I went into the school to try to help others learn, but it was a very useful experience for me, too.  Although all of the pupils there are taking a computing class by choice, not all of them were obviously engaged.  But that didn’t mean that they weren’t paying attention: one of the pupils with the least “interested” body language was the fastest at answering some of the questions.  Some of the pupils there had similar levels of understanding around IT security to some C-levels who aren’t in IT.  Thinking about pace, about involving members of the audience who weren’t necessarily paying attention – all of these were really useful things for me to reflect on.

So – if you get the chance[4] – consider contacting a local school or college and seeing if they’d like someone to talk to them about what you do.  Making it interesting, be ready to move on where topics aren’t getting the engagement you’d hope, and be ready for some questions.  I can pretty much guarantee that you’ll learn something.

1 – one of my daughters, who attends the school, gave me very strict instructions about not talking to her, her friends or anyone she knew[2].

2 – (which I have every intention of ignoring, but sadly, I didn’t see her or any of her friends that I recognised.  Maybe next time.)

3 – though possibly not with the senior manager who had to come out on a Sunday to rescue him and reset the system.

4 – and you’re willing to engage a tough audience.

The commonwealth of Open Source

This commonwealth does not apply to proprietary software: what stays hidden does not enlighten or enrich the world.

“But surely Open Source software is less secure, because everybody can see it, and they can just recompile it and replace it with bad stuff they’ve written?”

Hands up who’s heard this?*  I’ve been talking to customers – yes, they let me talk to customers sometimes – and to folks in the Field**, and this is one that comes up, it turns out, quite frequently.  I talked in a previous post (“Disbelieving the many eyes hypothesis“) about how Open Source software – particularly security software – doesn’t get to be magically more secure than proprietary software, and talked a little bit there about how I’d still go with Open Source over proprietary every time, but the way that I’ve heard the particular question – about OSS being less secure – suggests to me that we there are times when we don’t just need to a be able to explain why Open Source needs work, but also to be able to engage actively in Apologetics***.  So here goes.  I don’t expect it to be up to Newton’s or Wittgenstein’s levels of logic, but I’ll do what I can, and I’ll summarise at the bottom so that you’ve got a quick list of the points if you want it.

The arguments

First of all, we should accept that no software is perfect******.  Not proprietary software, not Open Source software.  Second, we should accept that there absolutely is good proprietary software out there.  Third, on the other hand, there is some very bad Open Source software.  Fourth, there are some extremely intelligent, gifted and dedicated architects, designers and software engineers who create proprietary software.

But here’s the rub.  Fifth – the pool of people who will work on or otherwise look at that proprietary software is limited.  And you can never hire all the best people.  Even in government and public sector organisations – who often have a larger talent pool available to them, particularly for *cough* security-related *cough* applications – the pool is limited.

Sixth – the pool of people available to look at, test, improve, break, re-improve, and roll out Open Source software is almost unlimited, and does include the best people.  Seventh – and I love this one: the pool also includes many of the people writing the proprietary software.  Eighth – many of the applications being written by public sector and government organisations are open sourced anyway these days.

Ninth – if you’re worried about running Open Source software which is unsupported, or comes from dodgy, un-provenanced sources, then good news: there are a bunch of organisations******* who will check the provenance of that code, support, maintain and patch it.  They’ll do it along the same type of business lines that you’d expect from a proprietary software provider.  You can also ensure that the software you get from them is the right software: the standard technique is for them to sign bundles of software so that you can check that what you’re installing isn’t just from some random bad person who’s taken that code and done Bad Things[tm] with it.

Tenth – and here’s the point of this post – when you run Open Source software, when you test it, when you provide feedback on issues, when you discover errors and report them, you are tapping into, and adding to, the commonwealth of knowledge and expertise and experience that is Open Source.  And which is only made greater by your doing so.  If you do this yourself, or through one of the businesses who will support that Open Source software********, you are part of this commonwealth.  Things get better with Open Source software, and you can see them getting better.  Nothing is hidden – it’s, well, “open”.  Can things get worse?  Yes, they can, but we can see when that happens, and fix it.

This commonwealth does not apply to proprietary software: what stays hidden does not enlighten or enrich the world.

I know that I need to be careful about the use of the “commonwealth” as a Briton: it has connotations of (faded…) empire which I don’t intend it to hold in this case.  It’s probably not what Cromwell*********, had in mind when he talked about the “Commonwealth”, either, and anyway, he’s a somewhat … controversial historical figure.  What I’m talking about is a concept in which I think the words deserve concatenation – “common” and “wealth” – to show that we’re talking about something more than just money, but shared wealth available to all of humanity.

I really believe in this.  If you want to take away a religious message from this blog, it should be this**********: the commonwealth is our heritage, our experience, our knowledge, our responsibility.  The commonwealth is available to all of humanity.  We have it in common, and it is an almost inestimable wealth.


A handy crib sheet

  1. (Almost) no software is perfect.
  2. There is good proprietary software.
  3. There is bad Open Source software.
  4. There are some very clever, talented and devoted people who create proprietary software.
  5. The pool of people available to write and improve proprietary software is limited, even within the public sector and government realm.
  6. The corresponding pool of people for Open Source is virtually unlimited…
  7. …and includes a goodly number of the talent pool of people writing proprietary software.
  8. Public sector and government organisations often open source their software anyway.
  9. There are businesses who will support Open Source software for you.
  10. Contribution – even usage – adds to the commonwealth.

*OK – you can put your hands down now.

**should this be capitalised?  Is there a particular field, or how does it work?  I’m not sure.

***I have a degree in English Literature and Theology – this probably won’t surprise some of the regular readers of this blog****.

****not, I hope, because I spout too much theology*****, but because it’s often full of long-winded, irrelevant Humanities (US Eng: “liberal arts”) references.

*****Emacs.  Every time.

******not even Emacs.  And yes, I know that there are techniques to prove the correctness of some software.  (I suspect that Emacs doesn’t pass many of them…)

*******hand up here: I’m employed by one of them, Red Hat, Inc..  Go have a look – fun place to work, and we’re usually hiring.

********assuming that they fully abide by the rules of the Open Source licence(s) they’re using, that is.

*********erstwhile “Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland” – that Cromwell.

**********oh, and choose Emacs over vi variants, obviously.

Staying on topic – speaking at conferences

Just to be entirely clear: I hate product pitches.

As I mentioned last week, I’ve recently attended the Open Source Summit and Linux Security Summit.  I’m also currently submitting various speaking sessions to various different upcoming events, and will be travelling to at least one more this year*.  So conferences are on my mind at the moment.  There seem to be four main types of conference:

  1. industry – often combined with large exhibitions, the most obvious of these in the security space would be Black Hat and RSA.  Sometimes, the exhibition is the lead partner: InfoSec has a number of conference sessions, but the main draw for most people seems to be the exhibition.
  2. project/language – often associated with Open Source, examples would be Linux Plumbers Conference or the Openstack Summit.
  3. company – many companies hold their own conferences, inviting customers, partners and employees to speak.  The Red Hat Summit is a classic in this vein, but Palo Alto has Ignite, and companies like Gartner run focussed conferences through the year.  The RSA Conference may have started out like this, but it’s now so generically security that it doesn’t seem to fit**.
  4. academic – mainly a chance for academics to present papers, and some of these overlap with industry events as well.

I’ve not been to many of the academic type, but I get to a smattering of the other types a year, and there’s something that annoys me about them.

Before I continue, though, a little question; why do people go to conferences?  Here are the main reasons*** that I’ve noticed****:

  • they’re a speaker
  • they’re an exhibitor with a conference pass (rare, but it happens, particularly for sponsors)
  • they want to find out more about particular technologies (e.g. containers or VM orchestrators)
  • they want to find out more about particular issues and approaches (e.g. vulnerabilities)
  • they want to get career advice
  • they fancy some travel, managed to convince their manager that this conference was vaguely relevant and got the travel approval in before the budget collapsed*****
  • they want to find out more about specific products
  • the “hallway track”.

A bit more about the last two of these – in reverse order.

The “hallway track”

I’m becoming more and more convinced that this is often the most fruitful reason for attending a conference.  Many conferences have various “tracks” to help attendees decide what’s most relevant to them.  You know the sort of thing: “DevOps”, “Strategy”, “Tropical Fish”, “Poisonous Fungi”.  Well, the hallway track isn’t really a track: it’s just what goes on in hallways: you meet someone – maybe at the coffee stand, maybe at a vendor’s booth, maybe asking questions after a session, maybe waiting in the queue for conference swag – and you start talking.  I used to feel guilty when this sort of conversation led me to miss a session that I’d flagged as “possibly of some vague interest” or “might take some notes for a colleague”, but frankly, if you’re making good technical or business contacts, and increasing your network in a way which is beneficial to your organisation and/or career, then knock yourself out*******: and I know that my boss agrees.

Finding out about specific products

Let’s be clear.  The best place to this is usually at a type 2 or a type 3 conference.  Type 3 conferences are often designed largely to allow customers and partners to find out the latest and greatest details about products, services and offerings, and I know that these can be very beneficial.  Bootcamp-type days, workshops and hands-on labs are invaluable for people who want to get first-hand, quick and detailed access to product details in a context outside of their normal work pattern, where they can concentrate on just this topic for a day or two.  In the Open Source world, it’s more likely to be a project, rather than a specific vendor’s project, because the Open Source community is generally not overly enamoured by commercial product pitches.  Which leads me to my main point: product pitches.

Product pitches – I hate product pitches

Just to be entirely clear: I hate product pitches.  I really, really do.  Now, as I pointed out in the preceding paragraph, there’s a place for learning about products.  But it’s absolutely not in a type 1 conference.  But that’s what everybody does – even (and this is truly horrible) in key notes.  Now, I really don’t mind too much if a session title reads something like “Using Gutamaya’s Frobnitz for token ring network termination” – because then I can ignore if it’s irrelevant to me.  And, frankly, most conference organisers outside type 3 conferences actively discourage that sort of thing, as they know that most people don’t come to those types of conferences to hear them.

So why do people insist on writing session titles like “The problem of token ring network termination – new approaches” and then pitching their product?  They may spend the first 10 minutes (if you’re really, really lucky) talking about token ring network termination, but the problem is that they’re almost certain to spend just one slide on the various approaches out there before launching into a commercial pitch for Frobnitzes********* for the entirety of the remaining time.  Sometimes this is thinly veiled as a discussion of a Proof of Concept or customer deployment, but is a product pitch nevertheless: “we solved this problem by using three flavours of Frobnitzem, and the customer was entirely happy, with a 98.37% reduction in carpet damage due to token ring leakage.”

Now, I realise that vendors need to sell products and/or services.  But I’m convinced that the way to do this is not to pitch products and pretend that you’re not.  Conference attendees aren’t stupid**********: they know what you’re doing.  Don’t be so obvious.  How about actually talking about the various approaches to token ring network termination, with the pluses and minuses, and a slide at the end in which you point out that Gutamaya’s solution, Frobnitz, takes approach y, and has these capabilities?  People will gain useful technical knowledge!  Why not talk about that Proof of Concept, what was difficult and how there were lessons to be learned from your project – and then have a slide explaining how Frobnitz fitted quite well?  People will take away lessons that they can apply to ther project, and might even consider Gutamaya’s Frobnitz range for it.  Even better, you could tell people how it wasn’t a perfect fit (nothing ever is, not really), but you’ve learned some useful lessons, and plan to make some improvements in the next release (“come and talk to me after the session if you’d like to know more”).

For me, at least, being able to show that your company has the sort of technical experts who can really explain and delve into issues which are, of course, relevant to your industry space, and for which you have a pretty good product fit is much, much more likely to get real interest in you, your product and your company.  I want to learn: not about your product, but about the industry, the technologies and maybe, if you’re lucky, about why I might consider your product next time I’m looking at a problem.  Thank you.

*Openstack Summit in Sydney.  Already getting quite excited: the last Openstack Summit I attended was interesting, and it’s been a few years since I was in Sydney.  Nice time of the year…

**which is excellent – as I’ll explain.

***and any particular person going to any particular conference may hit more than one of these.

****I’d certainly be interested about what I’ve missed.  I considered adding “they want to collect lots of swag”, but I really hope that’s not one.

*****to be entirely clear: I don’t condone this particular one******.

******particularly as my boss has been known to read this blog.

*******don’t, actually.  I’ve concussed myself before – not at a conference, to be clear – and it’s not to be recommended.  I remember it as feeling like being very, very jetlagged and having to think extra hard about things that normally would come to me immediately********.

********my wife tells me I just become very, very vague.  About everything.

*********I’ve looked it up: apparently the plural should be “Frobnitzem”.  You have my apologies.

**********though if they’ve been concussed, they may be acting that way temporarily.

Disbelieving the many eyes hypothesis

There is a view that because Open Source Software is subject to review by many eyes, all the bugs will be ironed out of it. This is a myth.

Writing code is hard.  Writing secure code is harder: much harder.  And before you get there, you need to think about design and architecture.  When you’re writing code to implement security functionality, it’s often based on architectures and designs which have been pored over and examined in detail.  They may even reflect standards which have gone through worldwide review processes and are generally considered perfect and unbreakable*.

However good those designs and architectures are, though, there’s something about putting things into actual software that’s, well, special.  With the exception of software proven to be mathematically correct**, being able to write software which accurately implements the functionality you’re trying to realise is somewhere between a science and an art.  This is no surprise to anyone who’s actually written any software, tried to debug software or divine software’s correctness by stepping through it.  It’s not the key point of this post either, however.

Nobody*** actually believes that the software that comes out of this process is going to be perfect, but everybody agrees that software should be made as close to perfect and bug-free as possible.  It is for this reason that code review is a core principle of software development.  And luckily – in my view, at least – much of the code that we use these days in our day-to-day lives is Open Source, which means that anybody can look at it, and it’s available for tens or hundreds of thousands of eyes to review.

And herein lies the problem.  There is a view that because Open Source Software is subject to review by many eyes, all the bugs will be ironed out of it.  This is a myth.  A dangerous myth.  The problems with this view are at least twofold.  The first is the “if you build it, they will come” fallacy.  I remember when there was a list of all the websites in the world, and if you added your website to that list, people would visit it****.  In the same way, the number of Open Source projects was (maybe) once so small that there was a good chance that people might look at and review your code.  Those days are past – long past.  Second, for many areas of security functionality – crypto primitives implementation is a good example – the number of suitably qualified eyes is low.

Don’t think that I am in any way suggesting that the problem is any lesser in proprietary code: quite the opposite.  Not only are the designs and architectures in proprietary software often hidden from review, but you have fewer eyes available to look at the code, and the dangers of hierarchical pressure and groupthink are dramatically increased.  “Proprietary code is more secure” is less myth, more fake news.  I completely understand why companies like to keep their security software secret – and I’m afraid that the “it’s to protect our intellectual property” line is too often a platitude they tell themselves, when really, it’s just unsafe to release it.  So for me, it’s Open Source all the way when we’re looking at security software.

So, what can we do?  Well, companies and other organisations that care about security functionality can – and have, I believe a responsibility to – expend resources on checking and reviewing the code that implements that functionality.  That is part of what Red Hat, the organisation for whom I work, is committed to doing.  Alongside that, we, the Open Source community, can – and are – finding ways to support critical projects and improve the amount of review that goes into that code*****.  And we should encourage academic organisations to train students in the black art of security software writing and review, not to mention highlighting the importance of Open Source Software.

We can do better – and we are doing better.  Because what we need to realise is that the reason the “many eyes hypothesis” is a myth is not that many eyes won’t improve code – they will – but that we don’t have enough expert eyes looking.  Yet.

* Yeah, really: “perfect and unbreakable”.  Let’s just pretend that’s true for the purposes of this discussion.

** …and which still relies on the design and architecture actually to do what you want – or think you want – of course, so good luck.

*** nobody who’s actually written more than about 5 lines of code (or more than 6 characters of Perl)

**** I added one.  They came.  It was like some sort of magic.

***** see, for instance, the Linux Foundation‘s Core Infrastructure Initiative