Encryption “backdoor”? No, it’s an gaping archway.

Backdoors are just a non-starter.

Note: this is probably one of those posts where I should point out that the views expressed in this article aren’t necessarily those of my employer, Red Hat.  Though I hope that they are.

I understand that governments don’t like encryption. Well, to be fair, they like encryption for their stuff, but they don’t want criminals, or people who might be criminals to have it. The problem is that “people who might be criminals” means you and me[1]. I need encryption, and you need encryption. For banking, but business, for health records, for lots of things. This isn’t the first time I’ve blogged on this issue, and I actually compiled a list in a previous post, giving some examples of perfectly legal, perfectly appropriate reasons for “us” to be using encryption. I’ve even written about the importance of helping governments go about their business.

Unluckily, it seems that the Government of Australia has been paying insufficient attention to the points that I have[2] been making. It seems that they are hell-bent on passing a law that would require relevant organisations (the types of organisations listed are broad and ill-defined, in the coverage that I’ve seen) to provide a backdoor into individuals’ encrypted messages. Only for individuals, you’ll note, not blanket decryption.  Well, that’s a relief. And that was sarcasm.

The problem? Mathematics. Cryptography is based on mathematics. Much of it is actually quite simple, though some of it is admittedly complex. But you don’t argue with mathematics, and the mathematics say that you can’t just create a backdoor and have the rest of the scheme continue to be as secure.

Most existing encryption/decryption schemes[3] allow one party to send encrypted data to another with a single shared key. To decrypt, you need that key. In order to get that key, you either need to be one of the two parties (typically referred to as “Alice” and “Bob”), or hope that, as a malicious[5] third party (typically referred to as “Eve”[6]), you can do one of the following:

  1. get Alice or Bob to give you their key;
  2. get access to the key by looking at some or all of the encrypted messages;
  3. use a weakness in the encryption process to decrypt the messages.

Now, number 1 isn’t great if you don’t want Alice or Bob to know that you’re snooping on their messages. Number 2 is a protocol weakness, and designers of cryptographic protocols try very, very hard to avoid them. Number 3 is an implementation weakness, and reputable application developers will be try very, very hard to avoid those. What’s more, for applications which are open source, anyone can have a look at them, so putting them in on purpose isn’t likely to last for long.

Both 2 and 3 can lead to backdoors. But they’re not single-use backdoors, they’re gaping archways that anyone can find out about and exploit.

Would it be possible to design protocols that allowed a third party to hold a key for each encryption session, allowing individual sessions to be decrypted by a “trusted party” such as law enforcement? Yes, it would. But a) no-one with half a brain would knowingly use such a scheme[7]; b) the operational overhead of running such a scheme would be unmanageable; and c) it would only a matter of time before untrusted parties got access to the systems behind the scheme and misused it.

Backdoors are just a non-starter. Governments need to find sensible ways to perform legally approved surveillance, but encryption backdoors are not one of them.


1 – and I’m not even intentionally addressing any criminals who might be reading this article.

2 – quite eloquently, in my humble opinion.

3 – the two tend to go together as there isn’t much point in one without the other[4] .

4 – in most cases. You’d be surprised, though.

5 – at least as far as Alice and Bob are concerned.

6 – guess where the name of this blog originated?

7 – hint: not me, not you, and certainly not criminals.

The 3 things you need to know about disk encryption

Use software encryption, preferably an open-source and audited solution.

It turns out that somebody – well, lots of people, in fact – failed to implement a cryptographic standard very well.  This isn’t a surprise, I’m afraid, but it’s bad news.  I’ve written before about how important it is to be using disk encryption, but it turns out that the advice I gave wasn’t sufficient, or detailed enough.

Here’s a bit of background.  There are two ways to do disk encryption:

  1. let the disk hardware (and firmware) manage it: HDD (hard disk drive), SSD (solid state drive) and hybrid (a mix of HDD and SDD technologies) manufacturers create drives which have encryption built in.
  2. allow your Operating System (e.g. Linux[0], OSX[1], Windows[2]) to do the job: the O/S will have a little bit of itself on the disk unencrypted, which will allow it to decrypt the rest of the disk (which is encrypted) when provided with a password or key.

You’d think, wouldn’t you, that option 1 would be the safest?  It should be quick, as it’s done in hardware, and well, the companies who manufacture these disks will know that they’re doing, right?

No.

A paper (link opens a PDF file) written by some researchers in the Netherlands reveals some work that they did on several SSD drives to try to work out how good a job had been done on the encryption security.  They are all supposed to have implemented a fairly complex standard from the TCG[4] called Opal, but it seems that none of them did it right.  It turns out that someone with physical access to your hardware can, fairly trivially, decrypt what’s on your drive.  And they can do this without the password that you use to lock it or any associated key(s).  The simple lesson from this is that you shouldn’t trust hardware disk encryption.

So, software disk encryption is OK, then?

Also no.

Well, actually yes, as long as you’re not using Microsoft’s BitLocker in its default mode.  It turns out that BitLocker will just use hardware encryption if the drive its using supports it.  In other words, using BitLocker just uses hardware encryption unless you tell it not to do so.

What about other options?  Well, you can tell BitLocker not to use hardware encryption, but only for a new installation: it won’t change on an existing disk.  The best option[5] is to use a software encryption solution which is open source and audited by the wider community.  LUKS is the default for most Linux distributions.  One suggested by the papers’ authors for Windows is Veracrypt.  Can we be certain that there are no holes or mistakes in the implementation of these solutions?  No, we can’t, but the chances of security issues being found and fixed are much, much higher than for proprietary software[6].

What, then are my recommendations?

  1. Don’t use hardware disk encryption.  It’s been shown to be flawed in many implementations.
  2. Don’t use proprietary software.  For anything, honestly, particularly anything security-related, but specifically not for disk encryption.
  3. If you have to use Windows, and are using BitLocker, run with VeraCrypt on top.

 


1 – GNU Linux.

2 – I’m not even sure if this is the OS that Macs run anymore, to be honest.

3 – not my thing either, but I’m pretty sure this is what it’s call.  Couldn’t be certain of the version, though.

4 – Trusted Computing Group.

5 – as noted by the paper’s authors, and heartily endorsed by me.

6 – I’m not aware of any problems with Macintosh-based implementations, but open source is just better – read the article linked from earlier in the sentence.

Fallback is not your friend – learning from TLS

The problem with standards is that people standardise on them.

People still talk about “SSL encryption”, which is so last century.  SSL – Secure Sockets Layer – was superseded by TLS – Transport Layer Security – in 1999 (which is when the TLS 1.0 specification was published).  TLS 1.1 came out in 2006.  That’s 12 years ago, which is, like, well, ages and ages in Internet time.  The problem with standards, however, is that people standardise on them.  It turns out that TLS v1.0 and v1.1 have some security holes in them, which mean that you shouldn’t use them, but people not only did, but they wrote their specifications and implementations to do so – and to continue doing so.  In fact, as reported by The Register, the IETF is leading a call for TLS v1.0 and v1.1 to be fully deprecated: in other words, to tell people that they definitely, really, absolutely shouldn’t be using them.

Given that TLS v1.2 came out in August 2008, nearly ten years ago, and that TLS v1.3 is edging towards publication now, surely nobody is still using TLS v1.0 or v1.1 anyway, right?

Answer – it doesn’t matter whether they are or not

This sounds a bit odd as an answer, but bear with me.  Let’s say that you have implemented a new website, a new browser, or a client for some TLS-supporting server.  You’re a good and knowledgeable developer[1], or you’re following the designs from your good and knowledgeable architect or the tests from your good and knowledgeable test designer[2].  You are, of course, therefore using the latest version of TLS, which is v1.2.  You’ll be upgrading to v1.3 just as soon as it’s available[3].  You’re safe, right?  None of those nasty vulnerabilities associated with v1.0 or v1.1 can come and bite you, because all of the other clients or servers to which you’ll be connecting will be using v1.2 as well.

But what if they aren’t?  What about legacy clients or old server versions?  Wouldn’t it just be better to allow them to say “You know what?  I don’t speak v1.2, so let’s speak a version that I do support, say v1.0 instead?”

STOP.

This is fallback, and although it seems like the sensible, helpful thing to do, once you support it – and it’s easy, as many TLS implementations allow it – then you’ve got problems.  You’ve just made a decision to sacrifice security for usability – and worse, what you’re actually doing is opening the door for attackers not just to do bad things if they come across legitimate connections, but actually to pretend to be legitimate, force you to downgrade the protocol version to one they can break, and then do bad things.  Of course, those bad things will depend on a variety of factors, including the protocol version, the data being passed, cipher suites in use, etc., but this is a classic example of extending your attack surface when you don’t need to.

The two problems are:

  1. it feels like the right thing to do;
  2. it’s really easy to implement.

The right thing to do?

Ask yourself the question: do I really need to accept connections from old clients or make connections to new servers?  If I do, should I not at least throw an error[4]?  You should consider whether this is really required, or just feels like the right thing to do, and it’s a question that should be considered by the security folks on your project team[5].  Would it not be safer to upgrade the old clients and servers?  In lots of cases, the answer is yes – or at least ensure that you deprecate in one release, and then remove support in the next.

The easy implementation?

According to a survey performed by Qualys SSL Labs in May 2018 this was a breakdown of 150,000 popular websites in the world, here are versions of TLS that are supported:

  • TLS v1.2 – 92.3%
  • TLS v1.1 – 83.5%
  • TLS v1.0 – 83.4%
  • SSL v3.0 – 10.7%
  • SSL v2.0 – 2.8%

Yes, you’re reading that correctly: over ten percent of the most popular 150,000 websites in the world support SSL v3.0.  You don’t even want to think about that, believe me.  Now, there may be legitimate reasons for some of those websites to support legacy browsers, but you can bet your hat that a good number of them have just left support in for some of these versions just because it’s more effort to turn off than it is to leave on.  This is lazy programming, and it’s insecure practice.  Don’t do it.

Conclusion

TLS isn’t the only protocol that supports fallback[8], and there can be good reasons for allowing it.  But when the protocol you’re using is a security protocol, and the new version fixes security problems in the old version(s), then you should really avoid it unless you absolutely have to allow it.


1 – the only type of developer to read this blog.

2 – I think you get the idea.

3 – of course you will.

4 – note – throwing security-based errors that users understand and will act on is notoriously difficult.

5 – if you don’t have any security folks on your design team, find some[6].

6 – or at least one, for pity’s sake[7].

7 – or nominate yourself and do some serious reading…

8 – I remember having to hand-code SOCKS v2.0 to SOCKS v1.0 auto-fallback into a client implementation way back in 1996 or so, because the SOCKS v2.0 protocol didn’t support it.

Q: when is a backdoor not a backdoor?

An encryption backdoor isn’t the same as a house backdoor: the metaphor is faulty.

A: when you’re a politician.

I’m getting pretty bored of having to write about this, to be honest. I’ve blogged twice already on encryption backdoors:

But our politicians keep wanting us to come up with them, as the Register helpfully points out – thanks, both the UK Prime Minister and FBI Director.

I feel sorry for their advisers, because all of the technical folks I’ve ever spoken to within both the UK and US Establishments[1] absolutely understand that what’s being asked for by these senior people really isn’t plausible.

I really do understand the concern that the politicians have. They see a messaging channel which bad people may use to discuss bad things, and they want to stop those bad things. This is a good thing, and part of their job. The problem starts when they think “it’s like a phone: we have people who can tap phones”. Those who are more technologically savvy may even think, “it’s like email, and we can read email.” And in the old days[3], before end-to-end encryption, they weren’t far wrong.

The problem now is that many apps these days set up a confidential (encrypted) link between the two ends of the connection. And they do it in a way which means that nobody except the initiators of the two ends of the connection can read it. And they use strong encryption, which means that there’s no easy way for anyone[4] to break it.

This means that it’s difficult for anyone to read the messages. So what can be done about it, then? Well, if you’re a politician, the trend is to tell the providers of these popular apps to provide a backdoor to let you, the “good people” in.

Oh, dear.

I believe that the problem here isn’t really that politicians are stupid, because I honestly don’t think that they are[5]. The problem is with metaphor. Metaphors are dangerous, because humans need them to get a handle on an aspect of something which is unfamiliar, but once they’ve latched on to a particular metaphor, they assume that all the other aspects of the thing to which the metaphor refers are the same.

An encryption backdoor isn’t the same as a house backdoor: the metaphor is faulty[6].

The key[7] similarity is that in order to open up your house backdoor, you need a key. That key gives you entry to the house, and it also allows any other person you give that key access to it, as well. So far, so good.

Here’s where it gets bad, though. I’m going to simplify things a little here, but let’s make some points.

  1. When you give a backdoor key to somebody, it’s not easily copyable if somebody happens to see it. In the electronic world, if you see the key once, you have it.
  2. The cost of copying an electronic key is basically zero once you have it. If one person decides to share the key indiscriminately, then the entire Internet has it.
  3. Access to a house Backdoor let’s you see what’s in the house at that particular moment. Access to an electronic backdoor lets you look at whatever the contents of the house were all the way up to the time the lock was changed, if you’ve taken copies (which is often easy).
  4. And here’s the big one. When you create a backdoor, you’re creating a backdoor for every house, and not just one. Let’s say that I’m a house builder. I’m very, very prolific, and I build thousands of houses a week. And I put the same lock in the backdoor of every house that I build. Does that make sense? No, it doesn’t. But that’s what the politicians are asking for.

So, the metaphor breaks down. Any talk about “skeleton keys” is an attempt to reestablish the metaphor. Which is broken.

What’s the lesson here? We should explain to politicians that backdoors are a metaphor, and that the metaphor only goes so far. Explain that clever people – clever, good people – don’t believe that what they (the politicians) think should be done is actually possible, and the move on to work that can be done. Because they’re right: there are bad people out there, doing bad things, and we need to address that. But not this way.


1 – the capital “E” is probably important here. In the UK, at least, “establishment” can mean pub[2].

2 – and people in pubs, though they may start up clued up, tend to get less clever as the evening goes on, though they may think, for a while, that they’re becoming more clever. This is in my (very) limited experience, obviously.

3 – 10 years ago? Not very long ago, to be honest.

4 – well, who’s owning up, anyway.

5 – mostly.

6 – or Fawlty, for John Cleese fans.

7 – ooh, look what I did there.

Entropy

… algorithms, we know, are not always correctly implemented …

Imagine that you’re about to play a boardgame which involves using dice.  I don’t know: Monopoly, Yahtzee, Cluedo, Dungeons & Dragons*.  In most cases, at least where you’re interested in playing a fair game, you want to be pretty sure that there’s a random distribution of the dice roll results.  In other words, for a 6-sided dice, you’d hope that, for each roll, there’s an equal chance that any of the numbers 1 through 6 will appear.  This seems like a fairly simple thing to want to define, and, like many things which seem to be simple when you first look at them, mathematicians have managed to conjure an entire field of study around it, making it vastly complicated in the process****.

Let’s move to computers.  As opposed to boardgames, you generally want computers to do the same thing every time you ask them to do it, assuming that give them the same inputs: you want their behaviour to be deterministic when presented with the same initial conditions.  Random behaviour is generally not a good thing for computers.  There are, of course, exceptions to this rule, and the first is when you want to use computers to play games, as things get very boring very quickly if there’s no variation in gameplay.

There’s another big exception: cryptography.  In fact, it’s not all of cryptography: you definitely want a single plaintext to be encrypted to a single ciphertext under the same key in almost all cases.  But there is one area where randomness is important: and that’s in the creation of the cryptographic key(s) you’re going to be using to perform those operations.  It turns out that you need to have quite a lot of randomness available to create a key which is truly unique – and keys really need to be truly unique – and that if you don’t have enough randomness, then not only will you possible generate the same key (or set of them) repeatedly, but other people may do so as well, allowing them to guess what keys you’re using, and thereby be able do things like read your messages or pretend to be you.

Given that these are exactly the sorts of things that cryptography tries to stop, it is clearly very important that you do have lots of randomness.

Luckily, mathematicians and physicists have come to our rescue.  Their word for randomness is “entropy”.  In fact, what mathematicians and physicists mean when they talk about entropy is – as far as my understanding goes – to be a much deeper and complex issue than just randomness.  But if we can find a good source of entropy, and convert it into something that computers can use, then we should have enough randomness to do all things that we want to do with cryptographic key generation*****.  The problem in the last sentence is the “if” and the “should”.

First, we need to find a good source of entropy, and prove that it is good.  The good thing about this is that there are, in fact, lots of natural sources of entropy.  Airflow is often random enough around computers that temperature variances can be measured that will provide good enough entropy.  Human interactions with peripherals such as mouse movements or keyboard strokes can provide more entropy.  In the past, variances between network packets receive times were used, but there’s been some concern that these are actually less random than previously thought, and may be measurable by outside parties******.  There are algorithms that allow us to measure quite how random entropy sources are – though they can’t make predictions about future randomness, of course.

Let’s assume, though, that we have a good source of entropy.  Or let’s not: let’s assume that we’ve got several pretty good sources of entropy, and that we believe that when we combine them, they’ll be good enough as a group.

And this is what computers – and Operating Systems such –  generally do.  They gather data from various entropy sources, and then convert it to a stream of bits – your computer’s favourite language of 1s and 0s – that can then be used to provide random numbers. The problem arises when they don’t do it well enough.

This can occur for a variety of reasons, the main two being bad sampling and bad combination.  Even if your sources of entropy are good, if you don’t sample them in an appropriate manner, then what you actually get won’t reflect the “goodness” of that entropy source: that’s a sampling problem.  This is bad enough, but the combination algorithms are supposed to smooth out this sort of issue, assuming it’s not too bad and you have enough sources of entropy.  However, when you have an algorithm which isn’t actually doing that, or isn’t combining even well-sampled, good sources, then you have a real issue.  And algorithms, we know, are not always correctly implemented – and there have even been allegations that some government security services have managed to introduce weakened algorithms – with weaknesses that only they know about, and can exploit – into systems around the world.  There have been some very high profile examples of poor implementation in both the proprietary and open source worlds, which have led to real problems in actual deployments.  At least, when you have an open source implementation, you have the chance to fix it.

That problem is compounded when – as is often the case – these algorithms are embedded in hardware such as a chip on a motherboard.   In this case, it’s very difficult to fix, as you generally can’t just replace all the affected chips, and may also be difficult to trace.  Whether you are operating in hardware or software, however, the impact of a bad algorithm which isn’t spotted – at least by the Good Guys and Gals[tm] – for quite a while is that you may have many millions of weak keys out there, which are doing a very bad job of protecting identities or private data.   Even if you manage to replace these keys, what about all of the historical encryptions which, if recorded, can now be read?  What if I could forge the identity of the person who signed a transaction buying a house several years ago, to make it look like I now owned it, for instance?

Entropy, then, can be difficult to manage, and when we have a problem, the impact of that problem can be much larger than we might immediately imagine.


*I’m sure that there are trademarks associated with these games**

**I’m also aware that Dungeons & Dragons*** isn’t really a boardgame

***I used to be a Dungeon Master!

****for an example, try reading just the first paragraph of the entry for  stochastic process on Wikipedia.

*****and gaming.

******another good source of entropy is gained by measuring radioactive decay, but you generally don’t want to be insisting that computers – or there human operators – require a radioactive source near enough to them to be useful.

Stop reading, start patching

… in order to correct this problem, BOTH the client AND the router must be patched

This is an emergency post: normal* service will resume next week**.

So, over the past 48 hours or so, news of the KRACK vulnerability for Wifi has started spreading.  This vulnerability makes is pretty trivially easy to snoop on information sent between a device (mobile phone, laptop, etc.) and a wifi router, in some cases allowing changes to that information.  This is not a bug in code, but a mis-design in the crypto algorithm that’s used by the vast majority of Wifi connections: WPA2.

Some key facts:

  • WPA2 personal and WPA2 enterprise are vulnerable
  • the vulnerability is in the design of the code, not the implementation
    • however, Linux and Android 6.0+ implementations (which use wpa_supplicant 2.4 or higher, are even more easily attacked)
  • in order to correct this problem, BOTH the client AND the router must be patched.
    • this means that it’s not good enough just to update your laptop, but also the router in your house, business, etc.
  • Android phones typically take a long time to get patches (if at all)
    • unless you have evidence to the contrary, assume that your phone is vulnerable
  • many hotels, businesses, etc., rarely update or patch their routers
    • assume that any wifi connection that you use from now on is vulnerable unless you know that it’s been patched
  • you can continue to rely on VPNs
  • you can continue to rely on website encryption***
    • but remember that you may be betraying lots of metadata, including, of course, the address of the website that you’re visiting, to any snoopers
  • the security of IoT devices is going to continue to be a problem
    • unless their firmware can easily be patched, it’s difficult to believe that they will be safe

For my money, it’s worth investing in that VPN solution you were always promising yourself, and starting to accept the latency hit that it may cost you.

For more information in an easily readable form, I suggest heading over to The Register, which is pretty much always a good place to start.

For information in the initial publisher of this attack, visit https://www.krackattacks.com/


*well, as normal as it ever was

**hopefully

***as much as you ever could before…

That Backdoor Fallacy revisited – delving a bit deeper

…if it breaks just once that becomes always,..

A few weeks ago, I wrote a post called The Backdoor Fallacy: explaining it slowly for governments.  I wish that it hadn’t been so popular.  Not that I don’t like the page views – I do – but because it seems that it was very timely, and this issue isn’t going away.  The German government is making the same sort of noises that the British government* was making when I wrote that post**.  In other words, they’re talking about forcing backdoors in encryption.  There was also an amusing/worrying story from slashdot which alleges that “US intelligence agencies” attempted to bribe the developers of Telegram to weaken the encryption in their app.

Given some of the recent press on this, and some conversations I’ve had with colleagues, I thought it was worth delving a little deeper***.  There seem to be three sets of use cases that it’s worth addressing, and I’m going to call them TSPs, CSPs and Other.  I’d also like to make it clear here that I’m talking about “above the board” access to encrypted messages: access that has been condoned by the relevant local legal system.  Not, in other words, the case of the “spooks”.  What they get up to is for another blog post entirely****.  So, let’s look at our three cases.

TSPs – telecommunications service providers

In order to get permission to run a telecommunications service(wired or wireless) in most (all?) jurisdictions, you need to get approval from the local regulator: a licence.  This licence is likely to include lots of requirements: a typical one is that you, the telco (telecoms company) must provide access at all times to emergency numbers (999, 911, 112, etc.).  And another is likely to be that, when local law enforcement come knocking with a legal warrant, you must give them access to data and call information so that they can basically do wire-taps.  There are well-established ways to do this, and fairly standard legal frameworks within which it happens: basically, if a call or data stream is happening on a telco’s network, they must provide access to it to legal authorities.  I don’t see an enormous change to this provision in what we’re talking about.

CSPs – cloud service providers

Things get a little more tricky where cloud service providers are concerned.  Now, I’m being rather broad with my definition, and I’m going to lump your Amazons, Googles, Rackspaces and such in with folks like Facebook, Microsoft and other providers who could be said to be providing “OTT” (Over-The-Top – in that they provide services over the top of infrastructure that they don’t own) services.  Here things are a little greyer*****.  As many of these companies (some of who are telcos, how also have a business operating cloud services, just to muddy the waters further) are running messaging, email services and the like, governments are very keen to apply similar rules to them as those regulating the telcos. The CSPs aren’t keen, and the legal issues around jurisdiction, geography and what the services are complicate matter.  And companies have a duty to their shareholders, many of whom are of the opinion that keeping data private from government view is to be encouraged.  I’m not sure how this is going to pan out, to be honest, but I watch it with interest.  It’s a legal battle that these folks need to fight, and I think it’s generally more about cryptographic key management – who controls the keys to decrypt customer information – than about backdoors in protocols or applications.

Other

And so we come to other.  This bucket includes everything else.  And sadly, our friends the governments want their hands on all of that everything else.    Here’s a little list of some of that everything else.  Just a subset.  See if you can see anything on the list that you don’t think there should be unfettered access to (and remember my previous post about how once access is granted, it’s basically game over, as I don’t believe that backdoors end up staying secret only to “approved” parties…):

  • the messages you send via apps on your phone, or tablet, or laptop or PC;
  • what you buy on Amazon;
  • your banking records – whether on your phone or at the bank;
  • your emails via your company VPN;
  • the stored texts on your phone when you enquired about the woman’s shelter
  • your emails to your doctor;
  • your health records – whether stored at your insurers, your hospital or your doctor’s surgery;
  • your browser records about emergency contraception services;
  • access to your video doorbell;
  • access to your home wifi network;
  • your neighbour’s child’s chat message to the ChildLine (a charity for abused children in the UK – similar exist elsewhere)
  • the woman’s shelter’s records;
  • the rape crisis charity’s records;
  • your mortgage details.

This is a short list.  I’ve chosen emotive issues, of course I have, but they’re all legal.  They don’t even include issues like extra-marital affairs or access to legal pornography or organising dissent against oppressive regimes, all of which might well edge into any list that many people might copmile.  But remember – if a backdoor is put into encryption, or applications, then these sorts of information will start leaking.  And they will leak to people you don’t want to have them.

Our lives revolve around the Internet and the services that run on top of it.  We have expectations of privacy.  Governments have an expectation that they can breach that privacy when occasion demands.  And I don’t dispute that such an expectation is valid.  The problem that this is not the way to do it, because of that phrase “when occasion demands”.  If the occasion breaks just once, then that becomes always, and not just to “friendly” governments.  To unfriendly governments, to criminals, to abusive partners and abusive adults and bad, bad people.  This is not a fight for us to lose.


*I’m giving the UK the benefit of the doubt here: as I write, it’s unclear whether we really have a government, and if we do, for how long it’ll last, but let’s just with it for now.

**to be fair, we did have a government then.

***and not just because I like the word “delving”.  Del-ving.  Lovely.

****one which I probably won’t be writing if I know what’s good for me.

*****I’m a Brit, so I use British spelling: get over it.