First aid – are you ready?

Your using the defibrillator is the best chance that the patient has of surviving.

Disclaimer: I am not a doctor, nor a medical professional. I will attempt not to give specific medical or legal advice in this article: please check your local medical and legal professionals before embarking on any course of action about which you are unsure.

This is, generally, a blog about security – that is, information security or cybersecurity – but I sometimes blog about other things. This is one of those articles. It’s still about security, if you will – the security and safety of those around you. Here’s how it came about: I recently saw a video on LinkedIn about a restaurant manager performing Abdominal Thrusts (it’s not called the Heimlich Manoeuvre any more due to trademarking) on a choking customer, quite possibly saving his life.

And I thought: I’ve done that.

And then I thought: I’ve performed CPR, and used a defibrillator, and looked after people who were drunk or concussed, and helped people having a diabetic episode, and encouraged a father to apply an epipen[1] to a confused child suffering from anaphylactic shock, and comforted a schoolchild who had just had an epileptic fit, and attended people in more than one car crash (typically referred to as an “RTC”, or “Road Traffic Collision” in the UK these days[2]).

And then I thought: I should tell people about these stories. Not to boast[3], but because if you travel a lot, or you commute to work, or you have a family, or you work in an office, or you ever go out to a party, or you play sports, or engage in hobby activities, or get on a plane or train or boat or drive anywhere, then there’s a decent chance that you may come across someone who needs your help, and it’s good – very good – if you can offer them some aid. It’s called “First Aid” for a reason: you’re not expected to know everything, or fix everything, but you’re the first person there who can provide aid, and that’s the best the patient can expect until professionals arrive.

Types of training

There are a variety of levels of first aid training that might be appropriate for you. These include:

  • family and children focussed;
  • workplace first aid;
  • hobby, sports and event first aid;
  • ambulance and local health service support and volunteering.

There’s an overlap between all of these, of course, and what you’re interested in, and what’s available to you, will vary based on your circumstances and location. There may be other constraints such as age and physical ability or criminal background checks: these will definitely be dependent on your location and individual context.

I’m what’s called, in the UK, a Community First Responder (CFR). We’re given some specific training to help provide emergency first aid in our communities. What exactly you do depends on your local ambulance trust – I’m with the East of England Ambulance Service Trust, and I have a kit with items to allow basic diagnosis and treatment which includes:

  • a defibrillator (AED) and associated pads, razors[4], shears, etc.
  • a tank of oxygen and various masks
  • some airway management equipment whose name I can never remember
  • glucogel for diabetic treatment
  • a pulsoximeter for heartrate and blood oxygen saturation measurement
  • gloves
  • bandages, plasters[6]
  • lots of forms to fill in
  • some other bits and pieces.

I also have a phone and a radio (not all CFRs get a radio, but our area is rural and has particularly bad mobile phone reception.

I’m on duty as I type this – I work from home, and my employer (the lovely Red Hat) is cool with my attending emergency calls in certain circumstances – and could be called out at any moment to an emergency in about a 10 mile/15km radius. Among the call-outs I’ve attended are cardiac arrests (“heart attacks”), fits, anaphylaxis (extreme allergic reactions), strokes, falls, diabetics with problems, drunks with problems, major bleeding, patients with difficulty breathing or chest pains, sepsis, and lots of stuff which is less serious (and which has maybe been misreported). The plan is that if it’s considered a serious condition, it looks like I can get there before an ambulance, or if the crew is likely to need more hands to help (for treating a full cardiac arrest, a good number of people can really help), then I get dispatched. I drive my own car, I’m not allowed sirens or lights, I’m not allowed to break the speed limit or go through red lights and I don’t attend road traffic collisions. I volunteer whatever hours fit around my job and broader life, I don’t get paid, and I provide my own fuel and vehicle insurance. I get anywhere from zero to four calls a day (but most often zero or one).

There are volunteers in other fields who attend events, provide sports or hobby first aid (I did some scuba diving training a while ago), and there are all sorts of types of training for workplace first aid. Most workplaces will have designated first aiders who can be called on if there’s a problem.

The minimum to know

The people I’ve just noted above – the trained ones – won’t always be available. Sometimes, you – with no training – will be the first on scene. In most jurisdictions, if you attempt first aid, the law will look kindly on you, even if you don’t get it all perfect[7]. In some jurisdictions, there’s actually an expectation that you’ll step in. What should you know? What should you do?

Here’s my view. It’s not the view of a professional, and it doesn’t take into account everybody’s circumstances. Again, it’s my view, and it’s that you should consider enough training to be able to cope with two of the most common – and serious – medical emergencies.

  1. Everybody should know how to deal with a choking patient.
  2. Everybody should know how do to CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) – chest compressions, at minimum, but with artificial respiration if you feel confident.

In the first of these cases, if someone is choking, and they continue to fail to breathe, they will die.

In the second of these cases, if someone’s heart has stopped beating, they are dead. Doing nothing means that they stay that way. Doing something gives them a chance.

There are videos and training available on the Internet, or provided by many organisations.

The minimum to try

If you come across somebody who is in cardiac arrest, call the emergency services. Dispatch someone (if you’re not alone) to try to find a defibrillator (AED) – the emergency services call centre will often help with this, or there’s an app called “GoodSam” which will locate one for you.

Use the defibrillator.

They are designed for untrained people. You open it up, and it will talk to you. Do what it says.

Even if you don’t feel confident giving CPR, use a defibrillator.

I have used a defibrillator. They are easy to use.

Use that defibrillator.

The defibrillator is not the best chance that the patient has of surviving: your using the defibrillator is the best chance that the patient has of surviving.

Conclusion

Providing first aid for someone in a serious situation doesn’t always work. Sometimes people die. In fact, in the case of a cardiac arrest (heart attack), the percentage of times that CPR is successful is low – even in a hospital setting, with professionals on hand. If you have tried, you’ve given them a chance. It is not your fault if the outcome isn’t perfect. But if you hadn’t tried, there was no chance.

Please respect and support professionals, as well. They are often busy and concerned, and may not have the time to thank you, but your help is appreciated. We are lucky, in our area, that the huge majority of EEAST ambulance personnel are very supportive of CFRs and others who help out in an emergency.

If this article has been interesting to you, and you are considering taking some training, then get to the end of the post, share it via social media(!), and then search online for something appropriate to you. There are many organisations who will provide training – some for free – and many opportunities for volunteering. You know that if a member of your family needed help, you would hope that somebody was capable and willing to provide it.

Final note – if you have been affected by anything in this article, please find some help, whether professional or just with friends. Many of the medical issues I’ve discussed are distressing, and self care is important (it’s one of the things that EEAST takes seriously for all its members, including its CFRs).


1 – a special adrenaline-administering device (don’t use somebody else’s – they’re calibrated pretty carefully to an individual).

2 – calling it an “accident” suggests it was no-one’s fault, when often, it really was.

3 – well, maybe a little bit.

4 – to shave hairy chests – no, really.

5 – to cut through clothing. And nipples chains, if required. Again, no, really.

6 – “Bandaids” for our US cousins.

7 – please check your local jurisdiction’s rules on this.

Of headphones, caffeine and self-care

Being honest about being down.

I travel quite a lot with my job.  This is fine, and what I signed up for, and mitigated significantly by the fact that I work from home the rest of the time, which means that (video-calls permitting) I can pop down to see the kids when they get back from school, or share a dog walk with my wife if she’s at home as well.  The travel isn’t as easy as it was a couple of decades ago: I’d like to believe that this is because my trips are more frequent, and often longer, but suspect that it’s more to do with the passage of time on my body.  There’s more than just the wear and tear, however, and I think it’s worth talking about it, but I’m sure it’s not just me.

I sometimes get down.

I sometimes get sad.

I sometimes get peeved, and cross, and angry for little or no reason.

I’ve never been diagnosed with any mental illness, and I don’t feel the need to medicalise what I’m describing, but I do need to own it: it’s not me at my best, I’m not going to be able to perform my job to the best of my ability, and it’s not healthy.  I know that it’s worse when I’m travelling, because I’m away from my family, the dog and the cats, divorced from routine and, given that I tend to travel to North America quite frequently, somewhat jet-lagged.  None of these things are specific triggers, and it’s not even that they are necessarily part of the cause, but they can all make it more difficult to achieve and even keel again.

I wanted to write about this subject because I had a day when I had what I think of as “a bit of a wobble”[1] a couple of weeks ago while travelling.  On this particular occasion, I managed to step back a bit, and even did some reading around the web for suggestions about what to do.  There were a few good blog articles, but I thought it would be honest to my – and others’ – lived experience to talk about it here, and talk about what works and what doesn’t.

Before we go any further, however, I’d like to make a few things clear.

First: if you are having suicidal thoughts, seek help.  Now.  You are valued, you do have worth, but I am not an expert, and you need to seek the help of an expert.  Please do.

Second: I am not an expert in mental health, depression or other such issues.  These are some thoughts about what helps me.  If you have feelings and thoughts that disturb you or are having a negative impact on you or those around you, seek help.  There should be no stigma either to mental illness or to seeking help to battle it.

Third: if you know someone who is suffering from mental illness of any kind, try to be supportive, try to be kind, try to be understanding.  It is hard.  I know people – and love people – with mental health issues.  Help to support them in getting help for themselves, if that’s what they need you to do, and consider getting help for yourself, too.

 

Things that do and don’t work (for me)

Alcohol (and over-eating) – NO

One article I read pointed out that having a few drinks or eating a tub of ice cream when you’re travelling and feeling down “because you deserve it” isn’t self-care: it’s self-medication.  I like this dictum.  Alcohol, though a dis-inhibitor, is also a depressant, and even if it makes you feel better for a while, you’re not going to be thanking last-night-you for the hangover you have in the morning.  Particularly if you’ve got a meeting or presentation in the morning.

Exercise – YES

I never used to bother much with exercise, particularly when I was travelling.  But the years have taken their toll, and now I try to hit the gym when I’m staying in a hotel, maybe every other day.  However, I also find that there are often opportunities to walk to meetings instead of taking a taxi, or maybe making my own way to a restaurant in the evening, even if I catch a cab back.  I track the steps I do, and aim for 10,000 a day.  This can be difficult when you’re in a meeting all day, but little things like taking the stairs, not the lift (elevator) can get you closer to your goal.

If you have a free day in a city, particularly at the weekend, do a search for “walking tours”.  I’ve done a few of these, particularly food-based ones, where you get to stretch your legs whilst being given a tour of the sites and trying some local cuisine.  You also get to meet some people, which can be good.

People – YES and NO

Sometimes what I need to pull myself out of a gloomy mood is to spend some time with people.  Even if it’s just on the edges of a conversation, not engaging too much, being around people I know and value can be a positive thing.

On other occasions, it’s exactly the opposite of what I need, and I crave solitude.  On occasion, I won’t know until I turn up for dinner, say, that I’m really not in the right head-space for company.  I’ve found that if you plead jet-lag, colleagues are generally very understanding, and if there’s a loud-mouthed colleague who is very insistent that you stay and join in, find a quieter colleague and explain that you need to get back to the hotel early.

Reading – YES

Books are great to escape to.  Whether you carry a paperback in your laptop bag, have a Kindle (or other e-reader) or just read something that you’ve downloaded onto your phone, you can go “somewhere else” for a bit.  I find that having a physical book is helpful, or at least using an e-reader, as then you’re slightly protected from the temptation to check that email that’s just come in.

Headphones – YES

What did we do before headphones?  I try keep a set in my pocket wherever I’m going and connect my phone when I get a chance.  I may wander the floor of an Expo with music on, sit down with some music for a cup of tea (of which more below) in a five minute break during a meeting, or wait for a session to start with something soothing in my ears.  In fact, it doesn’t need to be soothing: I can be in the mood for classical, upbeat, loud, quiet, downbeat, indie, New Orleans jazz, bluegrass[2] or folk[3]. That’s one of the joys of having music available at pretty much all times now.  Insulating myself from the world and allowing myself to take a metaphorical breath before rejoining it, can make a big difference.

Caffeine – YES (with care)

I don’t drink coffee (I just don’t like the taste), but I do drink tea.  It can be difficult to find a good cup of tea in North America[4], but I’ve discovered that when I can source one, the very act of sitting down and drinking it grounds me.  Smell and taste are such important senses for us, and I associate the smell and taste of tea so strongly with home and safety that a good cup of tea can do wonders for me.  That said, if I drink too much tea, I can get cranky (not to mention the fact that it’s a diuretic), and then I miss it if I can’t get it, so there’s a balance there.

Breathing – YES

Breathing is helpful, obviously.  If you don’t breathe, you’re going to die[5], but there’s a real power to stopping what you’re doing, and taking a few deep, purposeful breaths.  I’m sure there’s lots of science (and probably pseudo-science) around this, but try it: it can be really fantastic.

Conclusion

I know that I’m not alone in finding life difficult sometimes when I travel.  Please look after yourself and find whatever actions which help you.  My intention with this article isn’t to provide fixes for other people, but more to share a few things that help me, and most important, to acknowledge the problem.  If we do this, we can recognise the need for action in ourselves, but also for support in our family, friends and colleagues, too.

Last: if you become ill – physically, emotionally or mentally – you are not going to be functioning as well as you might when well.  It is in your and you organisation’s best interests for you to be well and healthy.  Many companies, organisations and unions provide (often free) help for those who are struggling.  If you keep experiencing feelings such as those described in this article, or you are in acute need, please seek professional help.


1 – because I’m British, and that’s the sort of language I use.

2 – one of my little guilty pleasures.

3 – another.

4 – you need decent tea to start with, and boiling or just off-boiling water: that’s close to 100C, or 212F.

5 – I’m not a medical expert, but I know that.

The 3 things you need to know about disk encryption

Use software encryption, preferably an open-source and audited solution.

It turns out that somebody – well, lots of people, in fact – failed to implement a cryptographic standard very well.  This isn’t a surprise, I’m afraid, but it’s bad news.  I’ve written before about how important it is to be using disk encryption, but it turns out that the advice I gave wasn’t sufficient, or detailed enough.

Here’s a bit of background.  There are two ways to do disk encryption:

  1. let the disk hardware (and firmware) manage it: HDD (hard disk drive), SSD (solid state drive) and hybrid (a mix of HDD and SDD technologies) manufacturers create drives which have encryption built in.
  2. allow your Operating System (e.g. Linux[0], OSX[1], Windows[2]) to do the job: the O/S will have a little bit of itself on the disk unencrypted, which will allow it to decrypt the rest of the disk (which is encrypted) when provided with a password or key.

You’d think, wouldn’t you, that option 1 would be the safest?  It should be quick, as it’s done in hardware, and well, the companies who manufacture these disks will know that they’re doing, right?

No.

A paper (link opens a PDF file) written by some researchers in the Netherlands reveals some work that they did on several SSD drives to try to work out how good a job had been done on the encryption security.  They are all supposed to have implemented a fairly complex standard from the TCG[4] called Opal, but it seems that none of them did it right.  It turns out that someone with physical access to your hardware can, fairly trivially, decrypt what’s on your drive.  And they can do this without the password that you use to lock it or any associated key(s).  The simple lesson from this is that you shouldn’t trust hardware disk encryption.

So, software disk encryption is OK, then?

Also no.

Well, actually yes, as long as you’re not using Microsoft’s BitLocker in its default mode.  It turns out that BitLocker will just use hardware encryption if the drive its using supports it.  In other words, using BitLocker just uses hardware encryption unless you tell it not to do so.

What about other options?  Well, you can tell BitLocker not to use hardware encryption, but only for a new installation: it won’t change on an existing disk.  The best option[5] is to use a software encryption solution which is open source and audited by the wider community.  LUKS is the default for most Linux distributions.  One suggested by the papers’ authors for Windows is Veracrypt.  Can we be certain that there are no holes or mistakes in the implementation of these solutions?  No, we can’t, but the chances of security issues being found and fixed are much, much higher than for proprietary software[6].

What, then are my recommendations?

  1. Don’t use hardware disk encryption.  It’s been shown to be flawed in many implementations.
  2. Don’t use proprietary software.  For anything, honestly, particularly anything security-related, but specifically not for disk encryption.
  3. If you have to use Windows, and are using BitLocker, run with VeraCrypt on top.

 


1 – GNU Linux.

2 – I’m not even sure if this is the OS that Macs run anymore, to be honest.

3 – not my thing either, but I’m pretty sure this is what it’s call.  Couldn’t be certain of the version, though.

4 – Trusted Computing Group.

5 – as noted by the paper’s authors, and heartily endorsed by me.

6 – I’m not aware of any problems with Macintosh-based implementations, but open source is just better – read the article linked from earlier in the sentence.

3 laptop power mode options

Don’t suspend your laptop.

I wrote a post a couple of weeks ago called 7 security tips for travelling with your laptop.  The seventh tip was “Don’t suspend”: in other words, when you’re finished doing what you’re doing, either turn your laptop off, or put it into “hibernate” mode.  I thought it might be worth revisiting this piece of advice, partly to explain the difference between these different states, and partly to explain exactly why it’s a bad idea to use the suspend mode.  A very bad idea indeed.  In fact, I’d almost go as far as saying “don’t suspend your laptop”.

So, what are the three power modes usually available to us on a laptop?  Let’s look at them one at a time.  I’m going to assume that you have disk encryption enabled (the second of the seven tips in my earlier article), because you really, really should.

Power down

This is what you think it is: your laptop has powered down, and in order to start it up again, you’ve got to go through an entire boot process.  Any applications that you had running before will need to be restarted[1], and won’t come back in the same state that they were before[2].  If somebody has access to your laptop when you’re not there, then there’s not immediate way that they can get at your data, as it’s encrypted[3].  See the conclusion for a couple of provisos, but powering down your laptop when you’re not using it is pretty safe, and the time taken to reboot a modern laptop with a decent operating system on it is usually pretty quick these days.

It’s worth noting that for some operating systems – Microsoft Windows, at least – when you tell your laptop to power down, it doesn’t.  It actually performs a hibernate without telling you, in order to speed up the boot process.  There are (I believe – as a proud open source user, I don’t run Windows, so I couldn’t say for sure) ways around this, but most of the time you probably don’t care: see below on why hibernate mode is pretty good for many requirements and use cases.

Hibernate

Confusingly, hibernate is sometimes referred to as “suspend to disk”.  What actually happens when you hibernate your machine is that the contents of RAM (your working memory) are copied and saved to your hard disk.  The machine is then powered down, leaving the state of the machine ready to be reloaded when you reboot.  When you do this, the laptop notices that it was hibernated, looks for saved state, and loads it into RAM[4].  Your session should come back pretty much as it was before – though if you’ve moved to a different wifi network or a session on a website has expired, for instance, your machine may have to do some clever bits and pieces in the background to make things as nice as possible as you resume working.

The key thing about hibernating your laptop is that while you’ve saved state to the hard drive, it’s encrypted[3], so anyone who manages to get at your laptop while you’re not there will have a hard time getting any data from it.  You’ll need to unlock your hard drive before your session can be resumed, and given that your attacker won’t have your password, you’re good to go.

Suspend

The key difference between suspend and the other two power modes we’ve examined above is that when you choose to suspend your laptop, it’s still powered on.  The various components are put into low-power mode, and it should wake up pretty quickly when you need it, but, crucially, all of the applications that you were running beforehand are still running, and are still in RAM.  I mentioned in my previous post that this increases the attack surface significantly, but there are some protections in place to improve the security of your laptop when it’s in suspend mode.  Unluckily, they’re not always successful, as was demonstrated a few days ago by an attack described by the Register.  Even if your laptop is not at risk from this particular attack, my advice just not to use suspend.

There are two usages of suspend that are difficult to manage.  The first is when you have your machine set to suspend after a long period of inactivity.  Typically, you’ll set the screen to lock after a certain period of time, and then the system will suspend.  Normally, this is only set for when you’re on battery – in other words, when you’re not sat at your desk with the power plugged in.  My advice would be to change this setting so that your laptop goes to hibernate instead.  It’s a bit more time to boot it up, but if you’re leaving your laptop unused for a while, and it’s not plugged in, then it’s most likely that you’re travelling, and you need to be careful.

The second is when you get up and close the lid to move elsewhere.  If you’re moving around within your office or home, then that’s probably OK, but for anything else, try training yourself to hibernate or power down your laptop instead.

Conclusion

There are two important provisos here.

The first I’ve already mentioned: if you don’t have disk encryption turned on, then someone with access to your laptop, even for a fairly short while, is likely to have quite an easy time getting at your data.  It’s worth pointing out that you want full disk encryption turned on, and not just “home directory” encryption.  That’s because if someone has access to your laptop for a while, they may well be able to make changes to the boot-up mechanism in such a way that they can wait until you log in and either collect your password for later use or have the data sent to them over the network.  This is much less easy with full disk encryption.

The second is that there are definitely techniques available to use hardware and firmware attacks on your machine that may be successful even with full disk encryption.  Some of these are easy to spot – don’t turn on your machine if there’s anything in the USB port that you don’t recognise[5] – but others, where hardware may be attached or even soldered to the motherboard, or firmware changed, are very difficult to spot.  We’re getting into some fairly sophisticated attacks here, and if you’re worried about them, then consider my first security tip “Don’t take a laptop”.


1 – some of them automatically, either as system processes (you rarely have to remember to have to turn networking back on, for instance), or as “start-up” applications which most operating systems will allow you to specify as auto-starting when you log in.

2 – this isn’t actually quite true for all applications: it might have been more accurate to say “unless they’re set up this way”.  Some applications (web browsers are typical examples) will notice if they weren’t shut down “nicely”, and will attempt to get back into the state they were beforehand.

3 – you did enable disk encryption, right?

4 – assuming it’s there, and hasn’t been corrupted in some way, in which case the laptop will just run a normal boot sequence.

5 – and don’t just use random USB sticks from strangers or that you pick up in the carpark, but you knew that, right?

7 security tips for travelling with your laptop

Our laptop is a key tool that we tend to keep with us.

I do quite a lot of travel, and although I had a quiet month or two over the summer, I’ve got several trips booked over the next few months.  For many of us, our laptop is a key tool that we tend to keep with us, and most of us will have sensitive material of some type on our laptops, whether it’s internal emails, customer, partner or competitive information, patent information, details of internal processes, strategic documents or keys and tools for accessing our internal network.  I decided to provide a few tips around security and your laptop[1]. Of course, a laptop presents lots of opportunities for attackers – of various types.  Before we go any further, let’s think about some of the types of attacker you might be worrying about.  The extent to which you need to be paranoid will depend somewhat on what attackers you’re most concerned about.

Attackers

Here are some types of attackers that spring to my mind: bear in mind that there may be overlap, and that different individuals may take on different roles in different situations.

  • opportunistic thieves – people who will just steal your hardware.
  • opportunistic viewers – people who will have a good look at information on your screen.
  • opportunistic probers – people who will try to get information from your laptop if they get access to it.
  • customers, partners, competitors – it can be interesting and useful for any of these types to gain information from your laptop.  The steps they are willing to take to get that information may vary based on a variety of factors.
  • hackers/crackers – whether opportunistic or targeted, you need to be aware of where you – and your laptop – are most vulnerable.
  • state actors – these are people with lots and lots of resources, for whom access to your laptop, even for a short amount of time, gives them lots of chances to do short-term and long-term damage to you data and organisation.

 

7 concrete suggestions

  1. Don’t take a laptop.  Do you really need one with you?  There may be occasions when it’s safer not to travel with a laptop: leave it in the office, at home, in your bag or in your hotel room.  There are risks associated even with your hotel room (see below), but maybe a bluetooth keyboard with your phone, a USB stick or an emailed presentation will be all you need.  Not to suggest that any of those are necessarily safe, but you are at least reducing your attack surface.  Oh, and if you do travel with your laptop, make sure you keep it with you, or at least secured at all times.
  2. Ensure that you have disk encryption enabled.  If you have disk encryption, then if somebody steals your laptop, it’s very difficult for them to get at your data.  If you don’t, it’s really, really easy.  Turn on disk encryption: just do.
  3. Think about your screen. When your screen is on, people can see it.  Many laptop screens have a very broad viewing angle, so people to either side of you can easily see what’s on it.  The availability of high resolution cameras on mobile phones means that people don’t need long to capture what’s on your screen, so this is a key issue to consider.  What are your options?  The most common is to use a privacy screen, which fits over your laptop screen, typically reducing the angle from which it can be viewed.  These don’t stop people being able to view what’s on it, but it does mean that viewers need to be almost directly behind you.  This may sound like a good thing, but in fact, that’s the place you’re least likely to notice a surreptitious viewer, so employ caution.  I worry that these screens can give you a false sense of security, so I don’t use one.  Instead, I make a conscious decision never to have anything sensitive on my screen in situations where non-trusted people might see it.   If I really need to do some work, I’ll find a private place where nobody can look at my screen – and even try to be aware of the possibility of reflections in windows.
  4. Lock your screen.  Even if you’re stepping away for just a few seconds, always, always lock your screen.  Even if it’s just colleagues around.  Colleagues sometimes find it “funny” to mess with your laptop, or send emails from your account.  What’s more, there can be a certain kudos to having messaged with “the security guy/gal’s” laptop.  Locking the screen is always a good habit to get into, and rather than thinking “oh, I’ll only be 20 seconds”: think how often you get called over to chat to someone, or decide that you want a cup of tea/coffee, or just forget what you were doing, and just wander off.
  5. Put your laptop into airplane mode.  There are a multitude of attacks which can piggy-back on the wifi and bluetooth capabilities of your laptop (and your phone).  If you don’t need them, then turn them off.  In fact, turn off bluetooth anyway: there’s rarely a reason to leave it on.  There may be times to turn on wifi, but be careful about the networks you connect to: there are lots of attacks which pretend to be well-known wifi APs such as “Starbucks” which will let your laptop connect and then attempt to do Bad Things to it.  One alternative – if you have sufficient data on your mobile phone plan and you trust the provider you’re using – is to set your mobile (cell) phone up as a mobile access point and to connect to that instead.
  6. Don’t forget to take upgrades.  Just because you’re on the road, don’t forget to take software upgrades.  Obviously, you can’t do that with wifi off – unless you have Ethernet access – but when you are out on the road, you’re often more vulnerable than when you’re sitting behind the corporate firewall, so keeping your software patched and updated is a sensible precaution.
  7. Don’t suspend.  Yes, the suspend mode[2] makes it easy to get back to what you were doing, and doesn’t take much battery, but leaving your laptop in suspend increases the attack surface available to somebody who steals your laptop, or just has access to it for a short while (the classic “evil maid” attack of someone who has access to your hotel room, for instance).  If you turn off your laptop, and you’ve turned on disk encryption (see above), then you’re in much better shape.

Are there more things you can do?  Yes, of course.  But all of the above are simple ways to reduce the chance that you or your laptop are at risk from


1 – After a recent blog post, a colleague emailed me with a criticism.  It was well-intentioned, and I took it as such.  The comment he made was that although he enjoys my articles, he would prefer it if there were more suggestions on how to act, or things to do.  I had a think about it, and decided that this was entirely apt, so this week, I’m going to provide some thoughts and some suggestions this week.  I can’t promise to be consistent in meeting this aim, but this is at least a start.

2 – edited: I did have “hibernate” mode in here as well, but a colleague pointed out that hibernate should force disk encryption, so should be safer than suspend.  I never use either, as booting from cold is usually so quick these days.